Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale (CIASS)


The CIASS measures anticipated stigma (expectations of experiencing discrimination from others in the future) among people living with chronic illnesses. The CIASS differentiates between three sources of stigma within three subscales: friends and family, work colleagues, and healthcare workers. I psychometrically evaluated the scale with people living with a range of chronic illnesses (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, diabetes). I have used the scale to study the role of anticipated stigma in healthcare access and quality of life, and others have used it to study anticipated stigma among specific populations of people living with chronic illnesses in a range of national and international contexts. I also collaborated with a fantastic group of colleagues in Iran, including Sahar Mozafari, to evaluate a Persian version of the CIASS.

  • Earnshaw, V. A., Quinn, D. M., & Park, C. L. (2011). Anticipated stigma and quality of life among people living with chronic illnesses. Chronic Illness, 8(2), 79-88. PMC22080524
  • Earnshaw, V. A., Quinn, D. M., Kalichman, S. C., & Park, C. L. (2013). Development and psychometric evaluation of the chronic illness anticipated stigma scale. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 36(3), 270-282. PMC22526525
  • Nejatisafa, A., Mozafari, S., Noorbala, A., Sadat Asgarian, F. Earnshaw, V. A., Sahraian, M., & Etesam, F. (in press). Psychometric evaluation of the Persian version of the Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale (CIASS). International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.
  • You can find the Spanish CIASS here.