I developed the HIV Stigma Framework with Dr. Stephenie Chaudoir to describe how HIV stigma is experienced by individual people living with and without HIV as a series of stigma mechanisms that impact their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. People living with HIV may experience enacted stigma (experiences of discrimination from others in the past or present), anticipated stigma (expectations of experiencing discrimination from others in the future), and internalized stigma (endorsement and application of negative beliefs and feelings about people living with HIV and applying them to the self). People living without HIV may perpetuate prejudice (negative emotions and feelings), stereotypes (group-based beliefs), and discrimination (negative or unjust treatment) toward people living with HIV.
Dr. Chaudoir and I reviewed existing HIV stigma scales in relation to the HIV Stigma Framework and made recommendations for future researchers aiming to measure HIV stigma. These included attending to: (1) the perspective of the population (target vs. perpetrator), (2) the way in which stigma is experienced, and (3) the outcomes of stigma. Along with other colleagues, we showed that stigma mechanisms appear to relate to different indicators of affective, behavioral, and physical well being among people living with HIV, providing support for the importance of differentiating between them.
Earnshaw VA, Chaudoir SR. From conceptualizing to measuring HIV stigma: A review of HIV stigma mechanism measures. AIDS Behav 2009;13:1160-177. PMCID: PMC19636699 [PubMed]
Earnshaw VA, Smith LR, Chaudoir SR, Amico KR, Copenhaver MM. HIV stigma mechanisms and well-being among PLWH: A test of the HIV stigma framework. AIDS Behav 2013;17:1785-95. PMCID: PMC3664141 [PubMed]
Valerie Earnshaw, PhD
Associate Professor and CEHD Faculty Scholar
Human Development and Family Studies
University of Delaware
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