Some work suggests that bullying due to stigma is worse than bullying not due to stigma.
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I developed the HIV Stigma Framework with Dr. Stephenie Chaudoir to describe how HIV stigma is experienced by individual people living with and without HIV as a series of stigma mechanisms that impact their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
In collaboration with Drs. Laura Bogart, Jack Dovidio, and David Williams, I developed the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations at the structural level (e.g., residential segregation) as well as the individual level among perceivers (e.g., discrimination) and targets (e.g., internalized stigma).
This model describes ways in which social stigma is manifested at the sociocultural, interpersonal, and individual levels.
The CSI-Outcomes Model differentiates between two components of concealable stigmatized identities, including valenced content and magnitude, which we theorize are important for determining the impact of a concealable stigmatized identity on psychological, physical, and behavioral health outcomes.
The Chronic Illness Anticipated Stigma Scale (CIASS) measures anticipated stigma (expectations of experiencing discrimination from others in the future) among people living with chronic illnesses. The CIASS differentiates between three sources of stigma within three subscales: friends and family, work colleagues, and healthcare workers.
The Sexual Stigma Scale measures experiences of perceived stigma (awareness of negative attitudes toward one’s group) and enacted stigma (experiences of discrimination from others in the past or present) among lesbian, bisexual, and queer women.
The SU-SMS measures enacted stigma (experiences of discrimination from others in the past or present), anticipated stigma (expectations of experiencing discrimination from others in the future), and internalized stigma (endorsement and application of negative beliefs and feelings about people with substance use disorders and applying them to the self) among people living with substance use disorders.